Bias: Flaws in the collection, analysis or interpretation of research data that lead to incorrect conclusions.
Biological plausibility: A causal association (or relationship between two factors) is consistent with existing medical knowledge.
Causal association: The presence or absence of a variable (e.g. smoking) is responsible for an increase or decrease in another variable (e.g. cancer). A change in exposure leads to a change in the outcome of interest.
Combination vaccine: Two or more vaccines administered in a single dose in order to reduce the number of shots given. For example, the MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine.
Communicable: That which can be transmitted from one person or animal to another. Also known as infectious.
Community immunity (Also called Herd Immunity): A situation in which a sufficient proportion of a population is immune to an infectious disease (through vaccination and/or prior illness) to make its spread from person to person unlikely. Even individuals not vaccinated (such as newborns and those with chronic illnesses) are offered some protection because the disease has little opportunity to spread within the community. Also known as herd immunity.
Conjugate vaccine: The joining together of two compounds (usually a protein and polysaccharide) to increase a vaccine’s effectiveness.
Diphtheria: A bacterial disease marked by the formation of a false membrane, especially in the throat, which can cause death.
Efficacy rate: A measure used to describe how good a vaccine is at preventing disease.
Etiology: The cause of.
Exposure: Contact with infectious agents (bacteria or viruses) in a manner that promotes transmission and increases the likelihood of disease.
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib): A bacterial infection that may result in severe respiratory infections, including pneumonia, and other diseases such as meningitis.
Hepatitis A: A minor viral disease, that usually does not persist in the blood; transmitted through ingestion of contaminated food or water.
Hepatitis B: A viral disease transmitted by infected blood or blood products, or through unprotected sex with someone who is infected.
Hepatitis C: is a liver disease caused by the Hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is found in the blood of persons who have the disease. HCV is spread by contact with the blood of an infected person.
Herpes Zoster: A disease characterized by painful skin lesions that occur mainly on the trunk (back and stomach) of the body but which can also develop on the face and in the mouth. Complications include headache, vomiting, fever and meningitis. Recovery may take up to 5 weeks. Herpes Zoster is caused by the same virus that is responsible for chickenpox. Most people are exposed to this virus during childhood. After the primary infection (chickenpox), the virus becomes dormant, or inactivated. In some people the virus reactivates years, or even decades, later and causes herpes zoster. Also known as the shingles.
Immune globulin: A protein found in the blood that fights infection. Also known as gamma globulin.
Immune system: The complex system in the body responsible for fighting disease. Its primary function is to identify foreign substances in the body (bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites) and develop a defense against them. This defense is known as the immune response. It involves production of protein molecules called antibodies to eliminate foreign organisms that invade the body.
Immunity: Protection against a disease. There are two types of immunity, passive and active. Immunity is indicated by the presence of antibodies in the blood and can usually be determined with a laboratory test. See active and passive immunity.
Immunization: The process by which a person or animal becomes protected against a disease. This term is often used interchangeably with vaccination or inoculation.
Immunosupression: When the immune system is unable to protect the body from disease. This condition can be caused by disease (like HIV infection or cancer) or by certain drugs (like those used in chemotherapy). Individuals whose immune systems are compromised should not receive live, attenuated vaccines.
Inactivated vaccine: A vaccine made from viruses and bacteria that have been killed through physical or chemical processes. These killed organisms cannot cause disease.
Infectious: Capable of spreading disease. Also known as communicable.
Inflammation: Redness, swelling, heat and pain resulting from injury to tissue (parts of the body underneath the skin). Also known as swelling.
Influenza: A highly contagious viral infection characterized by sudden onset of fever, severe aches and pains, and inflammation of the mucous membrane.
Investigational vaccine: A vaccine that has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in clinical trials on humans. However, investigational vaccines are still in the testing and evaluation phase and are not licensed for use in the general public.
Live vaccine: A vaccine in which live virus is weakened (attenuated) through chemical or physical processes in order to produce an immune response without causing the severe effects of the disease.Attenuated vaccines currently licensed in the United States include measles, mumps, rubella, shingles (herpes zoster), varicella, and yellow fever. Also known as an attenuated vaccine.
Measles: A contagious viral disease marked by the eruption of red circular spots on the skin.
Memory Cell: A group of cells that help the body defend itself against disease by remembering prior exposure to specific organisms (e.g. viruses or bacteria). Therefore these cells are able to respond quickly when these organisms repeatedly threaten the body.
Meningitis: Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord that can result in permanent brain damage and death.
Meningoencephalitis: [“men in joe en sef uh LIGHT iss”] — inflammation of the brain and meninges (membranes) that involves the encephalon (area inside the skull) and spinal column.
Microbes: Tiny organisms (including viruses and bacteria) that can only be seen with a microscope.
Mucosal membranes: The soft, wet tissue that lines body openings specifically the mouth, nose, rectum and vagina.
Outbreak: Sudden appearance of a disease in a specific geographic area (e.g. neighborhood or community) or population (e.g., adolescents).
Pandemic: An epidemic occurring over a very large geographic area.
Passive immunity: Protection against disease through antibodies produced by another human being or animal. Passive immunity is effective, but protection is generally limited and diminishes over time (usually a few weeks or months). For example, maternal antibodies are passed to the infant prior to birth. These antibodies temporarily protect the baby for the first 4-6 months of life.
Pertussis: (whooping cough) Bacterial infectious disease marked by a convulsive spasmodic cough, sometimes followed by a crowing intake of breath.
Poliomyelitis: (polio) An acute infectious viral disease characterized by fever, paralysis, and atrophy of skeletal muscles.
Potency: A measure of strength.
Prevalence: The number of disease cases (new and existing) within a population over a given time period.
Prodromal: An early symptom indicating the onset of an attack or a disease.
Quarantine: The isolation of a person or animal who has a disease (or is suspected of having a disease) in order to prevent further spread of the disease.
Recombinant: Of or resulting from new combinations of genetic material or cells; the genetic material produced when segments of DNA from different sources are joined to produce recombinant DNA.
Risk: The likelihood that an individual will experience a certain event.
Rubella: (German measles) Viral infection that is milder than normal measles but as damaging to the fetus when it occurs early in pregnancy.
Seroconversion: Development of antibodies in the blood of an individual who previously did not have detectable antibodies.
Serology: Measurement of antibodies, and other immunological properties, in the blood serum.
Side Effect: Undesirable reaction resulting from immunization.
Smallpox: An acute, highly infectious, often fatal disease caused by a poxvirus and characterized by high fever and aches with subsequent widespread eruption of pimples that blister, produce pus, and form pockmarks. Also called variola.
Strain: A specific version of an organism. Many diseases, including HIV/AIDS and hepatitis, have multiple strains.
Subclinical infection: The presence of infection without symptoms. Also known as in-apparent or asymptomatic infection.
Temporal association: Two or more events that occur around the same time but may be unrelated, chance occurrences.
Tetanus: Toxin-producing bacterial disease marked by painful muscle spasms.
Thimerosal: is a mercury-containing preservative used in some vaccines and other products since the 1930’s. There is no convincing evidence of harm caused by the low concentrations of thimerosal in vaccines, except for minor reactions like redness and swelling at the injection site. However, in July 1999, the Public Health Service agencies, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and vaccine manufacturers agreed that thimerosal should be reduced or eliminated in vaccines as a precautionary measure. Today, all routinely recommended childhood vaccines manufactured for the U.S. market contain either no thimerosal or only trace amounts with the exception of some flu vaccines. There are thimerosal-free influenza vaccines available.
Typhoid Fever: Typhoid fever is a life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. Persons with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract.
Titer: The detection of antibodies in blood through a laboratory test.
Vaccination: Injection of a killed or weakened infectious organism in order to prevent the disease.
Vaccine: A product that produces immunity therefore protecting the body from the disease. Vaccines are administered through needle injections, by mouth and by aerosol.
Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS): A database managed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Food and Drug Administration. VAERS provides a mechanism for the collection and analysis of adverse events associated with vaccines currently licensed in the United States. Reports to VAERS can be made by the vaccine manufacturer, recipient, their parent/guardian or health care provider.
Vaccine Safety Datalink Project (VSD): In order to increase knowledge about vaccine adverse events, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have formed partnerships with eight large Health Management Organizations (HMOs) to continually evaluate vaccine safety. The project contains data on more than 6 million people. Medical records are monitored for potential adverse events following immunization. The VSD project allows for planned vaccine safety studies as well as timely investigations of hypothesis.
Viremia: The presence of a virus in the blood.
Virulence: The relative capacity of a pathogen to overcome body defenses.
Virus: A tiny organism that multiplies within cells and causes disease such as chickenpox, measles, mumps, rubella, pertussis and hepatitis. Viruses are not affected by antibiotics, the drugs used to kill bacteria.
Waning Immunity: The loss of protective antibodies over time.